Schwerpunkte

An der Abteilung für Musikpädagogik Standort Innsbruck werden folgende Forschungsschwerpunkte gesetzt:

 


WEST

Wissenschaftliche

Empirische

Studien zur Musikpädagogik Österreichs

Die Forschungskooperation zwischen der Universität für Musik und darstellende Kunst in Wien und der Universität Mozarteum Salzburg Abteilung für Musikpädagogik Innsbruck hat sich die Bearbeitung aktueller Fragestellungen aus der wissenschaftlichen Musikpädagogik zum Schwerpunkt gemacht.

Neben einer österreichweiten Längsschnittstudien zur musikalischen Sozialisation der Studierenden des Lehramtsstudiums Musik, fokussiert das Forscherteam Schul- und Unterrichtsforschung im österreichischen Vergleich. Dabei stehen zunächst die Unterrichtsmaterialien und deren Verwendung im Fokus einer quantitativen Erhebung.

 

Kontakt:

Wien: Dr. Noraldine Bailer bailer@mdw.ac.at
Innsbruck: Dr. Armin Langer armin.langer@moz.ac.at

 


Projekte

 2006-2008    Musik und Bewertung
 
Kooperation mit dem Universitätsklinikum Ulm

"MUSIC AND EVALUATION"

Armin Langer (Christine Preyer, Martin Waldauf)
Professor of music pedagogics (music education)
University Mozarteum Salzburg, Department of Music Education, Innsbruck

THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

The human brain is the control centre of the entire human body. Both information from our surroundings and information from our body converges in our brain. Incoming data is processed (un)consciously and makes us think, feel and act. Although a comparison with a computer seems obvious, procedures in the brain are far more complex and sophisticated. Where a computer simply performs strictly logical operations, human beings go beyond the factual and cognitive. Whenever our brain is confronted with new data, it simultaneously takes our likes and dislikes into account. We make decisions concerning taste when we encounter people, new objects and music. Thus, we constantly evaluate whatever we come across. As is the case with acoustic signals, we automatically compare new input with our memory output, decode and identify the stimulus as an acoustic signal, associate it with a known context and add meaning to it (Bertram 2007, Roth 2002, Spitzer 2006).

Considering this from the neuroscientist’s point of view, sound waves only become music in our brain. Physical stimuli are converted in an electro-chemical process that involves cortical and subcortical brain areas and evoke a mental “image of music” that we either like or dislike. Cortical structures are responsible for rational processing of incoming data, whereas the subcortical structures are involved in creating an emotional evaluation. This “emotional assessment centre” is known as the limbic system (Roth 1996).

From a music-sociological, music-psychological and music-pedagogical point of view, studies galore a devoted to musical preferences. However, these studies lay emphasis on quantitative or physiological measurement (Gembris 2005).

AIM/ MAIN QUESTION

The question remaining is: How are these musical evaluations created? Is preferential music treated differently than music we dislike? Are human beings aware of these circumstances and can they provide information about this?

METHODS AND PROCEDURE

In order to answer these questions, fifteen students were tested according to both neurological and socio-scientific methods. The students were asked to choose music with the personal connotation “chill”, “fine” and “ugly”. During listening to pieces of music from theses three categories, the students were both tested in a qualitative procedure and scanned in a fMRT in two distinctive test series.

CONCLUSION

Both the medical exams and the socio-scientific tests pointed out that significant differences exist in the way we convert preferential and rejected music. “Chill” examples were accompanied by unusually high activity in the limbic system. As a consequence, “chill” music was described in a very emotional way and with strong self-reference. On the other hand, “fine” examples were accompanied by a heightened cortical activity, thus allowing for rational, factual descriptions. In contrast, “ugly” examples met with emotional resistance. Hence descriptions remained vague and emotionally detached.

From a music-pedagogical point of view the following conclusion is obvious: Music with the evaluation “ugly” does not allow any further musical consolidation because of the students’ deep resentment. “Chill” examples with their intense and subjective emotional evaluation are inept for any collective discussion in class. Our results suggest that music in the category “fine” has the best chances to be accepted by a group of students, thus facilitating and initating a musical learning process.

REFERENCES

Bertram, Wulf: Wo geht es hier zum Hippocampus? Ein Rundgang durch die Hirnlandschaft. In: Braintertainment. Expeditionen in die Welt von Geist und Gehirn./ hrsg. Von Bertram, Wulf und Spitzer, Manfred. New York; Stuttgart: Schattauer, 2007.

Gembris, Heiner: Musikalische Präferenzen. In: Spezielle Musikpsychologie / hrsg. von Rolf Oerter und Thomas H. Stoffer. - Göttingen; Bern; Toronto; Seattle: Hogrefe, 2005. (Enzyklopädie der Psychologie : Themenbereich D, Praxisgebiete : Ser. 7, Musikpsychologie ; Bd. 2) 

Roth, Gerhard: Das Gehirn und seine Wirklichkeit. Kognitive Neurobiologie und ihre philosophische Konsequenzen. Frankfurt am Main: suhrkamp,1996.

Roth, Gerhard: Fühlen, Denken, Handeln. Wie das Gehirn unser Verhalten steuert. Frankfurt am Main: suhrkamp, 2002.

Spitzer, Manfred: Nervenkitzel. Neue Geschichten vom Gehirn. Frankfurt am Main: suhrkamp, 2006.

 2004-2006  Empirische Studie zu musikbezogenen Erinnerungen
 
Aus eigener Schulzeit ist bekannt, dass mancher Lehrer oder Stundensequenzen unmittelbar und dauerhaft im Gedächtnis verankert sind, wogegen andere kaum Spuren in unsere Erinnerung hinterlassen.

Welche Bedingungen müssen vorliegen, damit Erinnerungen präsent und abrufbereit zur Verfügung stehen? Denn auf der Basis von abgespeicherten Informationen  können sich Fortschritte in Lernprozessen manifestieren. Die vorliegende Studie möchte Indikatoren musikbezogener Erinnerungen aufzeigen, die für den menschlichen Informationsverarbeitungsprozess konstitutiv sind.
 

Pilotstudie: Sample: 5 Probanden
 
Hauptstudie: Sample: 50 Probanden
 
Keywords: Problemzentriertes Interview, grounded theory, theoretisches,
offenes, axiales Kodieren
 
 

Langer, Armin / Preyer, Christine / Waldauf, Martin: „Na weil’s Spaß macht!“ Eine empirische  Studie zu musikbezogenen Erinnerungen. Sonderband 1 der Reihe Musikpädagogische Forschung Österreich. Wien, 2006.